Comprehensive (or other-than-collision) pays for damage to the insured vehicle caused by events like vandalism, hail, fire, falling objects, animals and theft. The term 'insured vehicle' restricts coverage to the car itself, and rules out belongings inside. You can make a claim for shattered windows, broken locks, etc. under the comprehensive portion of the policy if the car was damaged in the break-in. The claim would be subject to the policy's comprehensive deductible.
Do you have homeowners or renters insurance? These policies cover personal property anywhere in the world for specific losses. Theft is a covered peril, but most contracts have restrictions limiting coverage on high value items that are stolen. Determine the value of the stolen property, look for policy restrictions, and verify your deductible before turning in a claim.
Consider precautions to prevent future vehicle break-ins. Place personal gear, suitcases, computers, shopping bags, etc. in the trunk or out of plain sight. Avoid storing valuables in your car. Lock doors and close windows. Park in a garage or off-street lot that is monitored and well-lit. In addition, consider installing a car alarm.